K. Saalwächter, D. Reichert.
Magnetic Resonance: Polymer Applications
In: Encyclodedia of Spectroscopy & Spectrometry, 2nd
edition, vol. 3, pp. 2221-2236. Editors: J. Lindon, G. Tranter, D. Koppenaal. Academic Press, London 2010.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical method that permits
the structural as well as the dynamic characterization of liquids as well as
solids, and is therefore perfectly suited for the in-depth study of
macromolecular systems. This article focuses on applications of NMR to synthetic
polymers. High-resolution liquid- (melt-) or solution-state experiments mainly
yield chemical information such as composition or stereochemical sequence, and
experiments on intact polymeric solids, based on orientation-dependent
(anisotropic) interactions, provide information on supramolecular structures
such as chain packing and domain sizes on the nm scale, as well as molecular and
chain dynamics over a vast dynamic range. The span of suitable experiments
ranges from the acquisition of simple one-dimensional liquid-state 1H spectra to multidimensional acquisition schemes
requiring isotopic labeling, non-standard hardware, and data analysis by
numerical simulation of the data. Most of the experiments described herein are
nowadays fairly standard, and this article summarizes the most essential
techniques covered in a vast body of literature on the topic.