This thesis is focused on the development of heteronuclear correlation methods in solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where the spatial dependence of the dipolar coupling is exploited to obtain structural and dynamical information in solids. Quantitative results on dipolar coupling constants are extracted by means of spinning sideband analysis in the indirect dimension of the two-dimensional experiments. The principles of sideband analysis were established and are currently widely used in the group of Prof. Spiess for the special case of homonuclear 1H double-quantum spectroscopy. The generalization of these principles to the heteronuclear case is presented, with special emphasis on naturally abundant 13C-1H systems.
For proton spectroscopy in the solid state, line-narrowing is of particular importance, and is here achieved by very-fast sample rotation at the magic angle (MAS), with frequencies up to 35 kHz. Therefore, the heteronuclear dipolar couplings are suppressed and have to be recoupled in order to achieve an efficient excitation of the observed multiple-quantum modes. Heteronuclear recoupling is most straightforwardly accomplished by performing the known REDOR experiment, where π-pulses are applied every half rotor period. This experiment was modified by the insertion of an additional spectroscopic dimension, such that heteronuclear multiple-quantum experiments can be carried out, which, as shown experimentally and theoretically, closely resemble homonuclear double-quantum experiments.
Variants are presented which are well-suited for the recording of high-resolution 13C-1H shift correlation and spinning- sideband spectra, by means of which spatial proximities and quantitative dipolar coupling constants, respectively, of heteronuclear spin pairs can be determined. Spectral editing of 13C spectra is shown to be feasible with these techniques. Moreover, order phenomena and dynamics in columnar mesophases with 13C in natural abundance were investigated.
Two further modifications of the REDOR concept allow the correlation of 13C with quadrupolar nuclei, such as 2H. The spectroscopic handling of these nuclei is challenging in that they cover large frequency ranges, and with the new experiments it is shown how the excitation problem can be tackled or circumvented altogether, respectively. As an example, one of the techniques is used for the identification of a yet unknown motional process of the H-bonded protons in the crystalline parts of poly(vinyl alcohol).